We’re just starting to see 5G rollout in 2020, but 6G is already in the works – here’s what you need to know!
So, we have heard of 3G 4G 5G. Well, each is a different generation of wireless network and the core fact about it is that each is soo much power than the predecessor
A little history here
The first generation of wireless networks was 1G. Introduced in the 1980s. These were more reliant upon Analog radio networks. This meant that people could only make phone calls, could not transmit or receive text messages. The 1G network was first developed in Japan in 1979, until it was deployed in other countries such as the USA in 1980. In order to make things work, mobile towers were installed across the world. Which meant that signal coverage could be received from wider distances. The network was, however, unreliable and had some security problems. For e.g. mobile reception would always decrease, it would suffer interference from other radio transmissions, and it could easily be hacked due to a lack of encryption. This means that conversations could be heard and recorded with a few instruments.
The 1G network was not ideal, but remained in operation until 1991 when it was replaced by 2G. This new mobile network ran a digital signal, not an analog one, which greatly enhanced its protection, but also its power. On 2G, users could send SMS and MMS messages (though slowly and sometimes without success) and when GPRS was launched in 1997, users could accept and send e-mails on the go.
Third generation broadband networks are still in operation today, but typically where the better 4G signal fails. 3G has revolutionized broadband communication and the capabilities of smartphones. Compared to 2G, 3G was much quicker, and more data could be sent. This means that people can make video calls, exchange files, surf the internet, watch streaming TV, play online games on their cell phones for the first time. Under 3G, mobile phones were no longer just for calling and texting, they were the center of social communication.
The launch of 4G went a step further than that of the groundbreaking 3G. It’s five times quicker than the 3G network – which would potentially deliver speeds of up to 100Mbps. The network, which can provide connectivity for tablets and notebooks as well as smartphones. Can support all handset models launched from 2013 onwards. Under 4G, users expected smoother lag (less buffering), improved speech efficiency, easy access to instant messaging applications and social media, quality streaming and better downloading.
5G is the 5th generation of a broadband network. It is a new universal broadband standard like 1G, 2G, 3G and 4G networks. 5G creates a modern type of network built to bring practically everyone and everything together, including computers, artifacts and smartphones.
The aim of 5G wireless technologies is to offer faster multi-Gbps peak data rates. Ultra-low latency, improved reliability, huge network bandwidth, improved connectivity, and more reliable user experience to more devices. Higher performance and increased productivity boost new customer interface and connect new sectors.
Eventually we get to you all want to know 6G
Sixth Generation mobile network.
Well as you have realized these generations have come at an interval of every 10 years.
As it works after official launch of 5G companies like Qualcomm, Samsung, Appl, Nokia, Huawei, LG
All these big companies come together and start working on the next generation of mobile networks. It’s pretty obvious that these companies come together to invest in their own future.
This is from a business perspective one of the few ways companies stay afloat to continue selling their product to the consumers.
Samsung 5G towers were up and running by 2013 thou came to the public in 2019.
Its obvious that 6G will be out earliest in 2030
So why do we need 6G already 4G is fast enough and still 5G is not efficient and still has a lot of challenges to overcome?
I guess what ever these companies are doing is to create room for innovation
6G is obviously the future but
Let’s get this straight.
What about the challenges facing 5G currently?
1. Frequency band
Unlike 4G LTE, which already runs on fixed frequency bands below 6GHz, 5G includes frequencies up to 300GHz. Some bands, known as mmWaves, can hold a much greater capacity. And offers a 20-fold improvement over LTE’s fastest theoretical performance.
Wireless carriers will continue to register for higher spectrum bands when they develop and phase out their respective 5G networks. In the U.S., bids in the 28GHz spectrum alone amounted to $690 million (€615 million) by December 2018.
2. Deployment and coverage of
While 5G promises a substantial improvement in speed and capacity, its narrower coverage would require new infrastructure. Higher frequencies allow highly directional radio waves, which ensures that they can be targeted or targeted—a technique called beam formation. The problem is that 5G antennas, while capable of supporting more users and data. Can only be implemented over shorter distances.
This means that antennas and base stations are expected to be smaller in the 5G period. But more of them will have to be mounted in buildings or homes to compensate for their shorter range. Cities need to install additional repeaters to spread waves, extend coverage while retaining steady speeds in more heavily populated areas. For this, carriers are expected to continue to use low-frequency bands to serve larger regions until the 5G network matures.
3. Costs to build and purchase
Building a network is costly – carriers can earn capital to do that by growing consumer revenue. Like LTE’s proposals for higher upfront costs, 5G is expected to take a similar route. And it’s not about adding a layer on top of the current network, it’s setting the groundwork for something entirely fresh.
Total global expenditure on 5G is expected to hit $88 billion (€78.4 billion) by 2023, according to Heavy Reading Telecom Provider 5G Capex. If it becomes fully feasible, some parts of devices can be linked in radically different ways, in particular cars, machinery, robotics and city infrastructure.
4. Device support
A lot of hype is now generating about 5G-enabled smartphones and other gadgets. However, their availability will depend on how costly it is for suppliers to produce, as well as on how fast the network will carry out. Few operators in the U.S., South Korea and Japan have already launched 5G pilots in selected cities, and vendors have announced the release of compatible smart devices in 2019.
Similarly, autonomous vehicle technology is now on the market in limited forms, but fully autonomous cars are still years away. They’re hoping for 5G deployment, since they’d be traveling blind without a super-fast network to connect with.
The idea behind the Internet of Things (IoT) is too predicated on a fast network that can connect devices and services together. That’s one of the promises experts have forecasted 5G’s potential, but people will first want to see how much the extra speed will enrich their lives.
5. Security and privacy
As most data-driven infrastructure, the 5G roll-out would have to comply with both normal and advanced cybersecurity risks. While 5G comes under the Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA), a scheme designed to create trust across networks, it will currently be possible to monitor people nearby using their phones or even to listen to live phone calls.
As it stands today, it will be the responsibility of carriers and network consortiums to provide consumers with a digital safety net.
With internet rates expected to be higher than current ones, availability will improve as well. It would push cloud-based and data virtualization systems to be as airtight as possible in order to protect customer data and privacy. In the same way, their consumers would have to be more cautious and vigilant as the steward of their results.
So, what is it for 6G?
Already china is leading in 6G air space
On November 6, 2020, China successfully launched an experimental 6G test satellite into orbit, along with 12 other satellites, using a single Long March 6 launch vehicle rocket. The satellite will “verify the terahertz (THz) communication technology in space, a breakthrough in space communication”, according to china’s Global Times newspaper.
in two papers which were published in IEEE Electron Device Letters. The presence of this charge in the transistor gives the device the ability to operate at high frequencies because the electrons are free to move quickly through it without obstruction. Although the data has not been published yet, the researchers claim it shows promising results, and, according to their plan, they will eventually test the new devices at even higher frequencies than before (140 GHz and 230 GHz, with both firmly in the terahertz range)
Despite the recent introduction of 5G worldwide, China has already started its path towards 6G. China’s Ministry of Science and Technology recently announced that it has formed two teams to oversee the research and study of 6G connectivity, thus marking the official start of a state-backed effort to accelerate technology development.
One of the teams is made up of government departments that will be responsible for driving the implementation of 6G technology, while the other is made up of 37 experts from universities, scientific institutions and corporations, who will provide technical advice for key government decisions on 6G.
While 5G is known to have data transmission speeds at least 10 times higher than 4G, it is too early to say how far 6G will go.
However, the 6G technology market is expected to facilitate major improvements in the areas of image analysis, presence technology, and location awareness. Working in conjunction with Artificial Intelligence, 6G’s computing infrastructure will, for example, be able to autonomously determine the best location for computing to occur. This includes decisions about data storage, processing, and sharing.
Advantages of 6G over 5G
Some of the 6G services include holographic communications, artificial intelligence, high precision manufacturing, new technologies such as sub-THz or VLC (Visible Light Communications), 3D coverage framework, terrestrial and aerial radio APs to provide cloud functionalities, etc.
6G connectivity is expected to support speeds of 1 terabyte per second (Tbps). This level of capacity and latency will be unprecedented and will extend the performance of 5G applications along with expanding the scope of capabilities in support of increasingly new and innovative tools in the areas of wireless cognition, detection, and imaging.
The higher frequencies of 6G will enable much faster sampling rates as well as significantly better performance. The combination of Sub-mmWave and frequency selection to determine relative electromagnetic absorption rates is expected to lead to potentially significant advances in wireless detection solutions.
In addition, while the incorporation of Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) is a point of consideration as an addition to 5G networks, MEC will be integrated into all 6G networks. Perimeter and central computing will be more easily integrated as part of a combined communications/computing infrastructure framework by the time 6G networks are implemented. This will provide many potential benefits as 6G technology becomes operational, including improved access to Artificial Intelligence (AI) capabilities.
In addition, this technology will offer a number of benefits that may provide the necessary impetus for its implementation.
- It is designed to support more mobile connections than 5G capacity, which is approximately 10 x 10 5 per km2.
- It will revolutionize the healthcare industry that eliminates barriers of time and space through remote surgery and guaranteed optimization of healthcare workflow.
- The 6G supera will implement femtocells or distributed antenna systems (DAS), to solve connection problems that may have cellular networks in enclosed spaces.
- It uses THz frequencies (Terahertz) which also has its own advantages:
- THz waves can easily absorb moisture in the air, so it is useful for short-range, high-speed wireless communications. Terahertz offers narrow beam and better directivity, resulting in secure communication that is achieved due to its strong ability to block interference.
- The high wireless bandwidth (several tens of GHz) of 108 to 1013 GHz can offer a higher communication speed in Tb/sec. In spatial communication, terahertz waves are used for possible transmission without osteo between satellites.
- Massive and lightning-forming MIMO multiplexing gain helps overcome rain attenuation and fade propagation to meet urban coverage requirements.
- The photon energy of the Terahertz wave is very low (approximately 10-3eV offering greater energy efficiency. THz waves can penetrate substances with less attenuation that can be used for some special media.
- Wireless6G uses visible lights that take advantage of the benefits of LEDs, such as lighting and high-speed data communication. VLC does not produce EM (electromagnetic) radiation. Therefore, it is not susceptible to external EM interference. VLC also helps build network security.
- It offers very high data rate (Tb/sec) and very low latency (sub-ms). Therefore, many applications can make use of 6G wireless networks.
- It will virtualize additional components, such as the PHY layer and the MAC layer. Currently, PHY/MAC implementations require dedicated hardware implementations. Virtualization will lower network equipment costs. This makes massively dense deployment in 6G economically feasible.
In spite of its virtues, it also has disadvantages
Being a technology that is currently under research and development, it is difficult to extract proven inconvenience or disadvantage, however, when describing its objectives, one can predict what its weakest points will be.
- It uses cell-free architecture and multiple connectivity. Therefore, seamless mobility and integration of different types of links (THz, VLC, mmwave, sub-6GHz) require perfect programming. In non-cell architecture, the EU connects to the RAN and not to a single cell. The challenge here is to design a new network architecture.
- By using THz (Terahertz) frequencies for part of your communications, you can consider the drawbacks of THz as part of the challenges that 6G will face.
- Similarly, by using visible light frequencies, the drawbacks of VLC can be considered drawbacks of 6G wireless technology.
- To manage a large number of terminals and network equipment, a more efficient and energy-efficient 6G system is essential. To comply with this, network equipment and terminal circuits and the design of the communication protocol stack is a challenge. Power collection strategies are adopted to handle this requirement.
Despite not having resulted in its extension, 5G technology has continually revealed its intrinsic shortcomings to its original concept as an Internet enabler in all applications.
These pitfalls included stimulating practices aimed at identifying the next generation (6G) wireless infrastructure, which would potentially incorporate long-range devices from stand-alone networks to extended reality.
However, considering all the recent initiatives surrounding 6G, the core architectural and efficiency components of the technology remain largely undefined.
Despite this, 6G would not be a mere exploration, but the fusion of new technological developments powered by exciting underlying services is anticipated.